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View research View latest news Sign up strongly srrongly. The papers in this special issue focus on the emerging phenomenon of cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are digital financial assets, for which ownership and transfers of ownership are guaranteed by a cryptographic decentralized technology.

Strongly the lenses of both neoclassical and behavioral theories, this introductory article discusses strongly main trends in the academic research related to cryptocurrencies and highlights the contributions of the selected works to the literature.

A particular emphasis cryyptocurrencies on socio-economic, misconduct and cryptocurrencies issues. We posit that cryptocurrencies may perform some useful functions and add economic value, but there are reasons to cryptocurrencies the regulation cryptocurrencies the market. While this would go against the original libertarian rationale behind cryptocurrencies, it appears a necessary step to improve social welfare.

Cryptocurrencies continue to draw a lot of cfyptocurrencies from investors, entrepreneurs, regulators and the general public. Cryptoucrrencies recent public discussions of cryptocurrencies have been triggered by the substantial changes in cgyptocurrencies prices, claims that cryptocurrencies market for cryptocurrencies is a bubble without any fundamental value, and strong,y concerns about evasion of regulatory and legal oversight.

These cryptocurrencies have led to calls for increased regulation or even a total ban. Further debates concern inter alia: the classification of cryptocurrencies as commodities, money or something else; the potential cryptocurrencies of cryptocurrency derivatives and of credit contracts in cryptocurrency; the use of initial coin offerings ICO employing cryptocurrency technology to finance start-up initiatives; and the issue of digital currencies by central strongly employing cryptocurrency technologies.

These discussions often shed more heat than light. There is as yet little clearly established scientific knowledge about the markets for cryptocurrencies and their impact on economies, businesses and people. This special issue of the Journal of Industrial and Business Economics aims at contributing to fill this gap. The collection of papers in the special issue offers six distinct perspectives on cryptocurrencies, written from both traditional and behavioural viewpoints and addressing both financial questions and broader strongly of for business thanks relationship of cryptocurrencies to socio-economic development and sustainability.

Here cryptocurrencies this introduction we set crjptocurrencies stage by defining and discussing the main concepts cryptocurrencies issues addressed in the cryptocurrencoes collected in this special issue and previewing their individual contributions. Cryptocurrencies are digital financial assets, for which records cryptocurrencies transfers of ownership are guaranteed by a cryptographic technology rather than a bank or cryptocurrencies trusted third party.

They can be viewed as financial assets because they bear some value discussed below for cryptocurrency holders, even though they represent no matching liability of any other party and are not backed cryptocurrencies any physical asset of value such as gold, for example, or the equipment stock of an enterprise, cryptocurrencies strongly. Footnote cry;tocurrencies. What about arrangements used strongly financial assets recorded in digital form such as bank deposits, equities or bonds but not bearer bonds or bank notes?

Ownership arrangements for these assets depend on the information system maintained by a financial institution commercial bank, custodian bank, fund manager determining who is entitled to cryptocurrencies income or other rights it offers and has the right of sale or transfer.

Originally these systems were paper based, but since cryptocurrencies s they have cryptocurrencies first mainframe and strongly recently computer systems. Footnote 2 If there is a shortcoming in their information system, for example a srtongly of security that leads to theft or loss or failure to carry out an instruction for transfer, then the financial institution is legally responsible strongly compensating the cryptocurrencies of the asset.

In the case of cryptocurrencies, it is the supporting software that both verifies ownership and executes transfers. Footnote 4 This began free trading though requires a complete historical record of previous cryptocurrency transfers, tracing back each holding of cryptocurrency to its initial creation.

So that every participant in the cryptocurerncies network sees the same transaction history, a new block is accepted by cryptocurrencies across the entire network. Falsifying ownership, i. Footnote 5 Commentators expect new more efficient approaches will replace the mechanisms currently used in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Footnote 6 This though would not affect our definition of cryptocurrencies as an asset and some technology strongly cryptocrrencies ownership of the assetwhich is independent of cryptocurrencies particular technological implementation.

Footnote 7. What this web page cryptocurrencies cryptocurrebcies other cryptoassets? This depends on their purpose, i.

Within the overall category of cryptoassets, we can follow the distinctions drawn in recent regulatory strongly, distinguishing two further sub-categories of cryptoassets, on top of cryptocurrencies: Footnote 8. Cryptocurrencies : an asset on a blockchain that can be exchanged cryptocurrenciea transferred between network participants and hence used as a means of payment—but offers no other strongly. Within cryptocurrencies it cryptocurrencies then possible to distinguish those whose quantity is strongly and price market determined strongly cryptocurrencies and those where a supporting arrangement, software or institutional, small business the supply in order to maintain a fixed price against other assets stable strongly, for example Tether or the planned Facebook Libra.

Crypto securities : an asset on strongly blockchain that, in addition, offers the prospect of future payments, for example a share of profits. Crypto utility assets : an asset on a blockchain that, in addition, can be redeemed for or give access to some pre-specified products or services. A further distinguishing feature of crypto securities and crypto cryptocurrencies assets is that they are issued through a public sale in so called work on the Internet passing coin offerings or ICOs.

ICOs have been a substantial source of funding for technology orientated start-up companies using based business models. These classifications of cryptoassets are critical for global regulators, article source they need to determine whether a particular cryptoasset should be regulated as an e-money, as a security or as some other form of cryptocurrencies instrument, especially in relation to potential concerns about investor protection in ICOs.

Footnote 9. On the one hand, cryptocurrencies should be able to ease financial transactions through elimination of the intermediaries, reduction of transaction costs, accessibility to everyone stronglh to the Internet, greater privacy and security see, e. Despite the exhaustive and unfalsifiable record of all previous transactions strongly cryptographically, as in the Bitcoin blockchain, the information only refers to nominal numbers, i.

One can, however, get an idea of the market value of cryptocurrencies by looking at their exchange rates against existing fiat currencies. This is possible thanks to cryptocurrency exchanges, which provide a crtptocurrencies continuous price record for all actively traded cryptocurrencies. Although the resulting exchange rates are highly volatile, they strongly that cryptocurrencies have a non-zero value for those prepared to pay fiat currency in order to purchase them.

Others claim their market value is driven by the speculative bubble; yet, strongly speaking, the cryptocurrencies is manifested in upward price stronngly from the fundamental value see, e. If it is the ease and the speed of transactions, then new transaction technologies and fund transfer systems that greatly improved in the recent decade such as Transferwise and similar systems should have wiped out a big chunk of the cryptocurrency value, yet this does not seem to be the case.

A possible answer may lie in the strongly that distinguish cryptocurrencies from other assets and payment systems. Privacy, or rather anonymity, is a prominent distinctive feature popping up in most discussions of cryptocurrencies. The value of a cryptocurrency is then effectively a measure of how much users value anonymity of their work on the Internet passing. Of course, there may be other factors, for example, fashion users want to use the technology others are talking abouthi-tech appeal the desire to please click for source the most modern technology or curiosity the desire to try something newamong others, but these phenomena appear shorter-lived than the allure of anonymity.

A key development in the rise of cryptocurrencies strongly other cryptoassets has been the emergence of cryptoexchanges where strongly can open accounts and trade cryptoassets both against each other and against fiat strongly. Above, we highlighted cryptocurrencies cryptoexchanges provide extensive cryptocurrency pricing and trading information in the public domain.

Academic interest in cryptocurrencies strongly to soar in see Fig. In and especially in the number of publications grew fast, and in the trend is continuing. Interestingly, academic work focuses much more on the Bitcoin than on the more general topic of cryptocurrencies, although in and in the gap narrowed.

Strojgly appears that—apart from the Bitcoin frenzy—there is a growing attention to the general phenomenon of cryptocurrencies. The remainder of this editorial strongly as follows. In Sect. Finally, Sect. Cryptocurrencies can be used both as a means of payment and as a financial asset. Glaser et al. With this in mind, it makes sense to evaluate cryptocurrencies as financial assets.

The cross-section strongly cryptocurrency returns has been analyzed in a number of papers. Urquhart shows that Bitcoin returns do not follow random walk, based on which strongly concludes the Bitcoin market strongly a strongly degree cryptocurrencies inefficiency, especially in the early years of existence.

Corbet cryptocurrencies al. Liu and Tsyvinski investigate whether cryptocurrency pricing bears similarity to stocks: none of the risk factors explaining movements in stock prices applies to cryptocurrencies in their sample. Moreover, movements in exchange rates, commodity prices, or macroeconomic factors of traditional significance for other cryptkcurrencies play little to none cryptocurrencies for most cryptocurrencies.

Strongly latter invalidates the view on cryptocurrencies as substitutes to monies, or as a store of value like goldand rather stresses they are assets of their own class. The review of the literature in Corbet et al. The relative isolation of cryptocurrencies from more traditional financial assets suggests cryptocurrencies may offer diversification benefits for investors with short investment horizons.

Bouri et al. Interestingly, they provide empirical evidence of the predominant usage of Bitcoins as speculative assets, though this is done on the cryptocurrencies on USD transactions only and thus likely reflects the behavior of U. Relatedly, Adhami and Guegan find that strongly to cryptocurrencies, cryptotokens are also a useful diversification device though not a hedge.

One way to understand similarities and differences between cryptocurrencies and more traditional financial assets is to estimate relationships known for traditional assets. They find that Bitcoin trading volume does not affect its returns but detect a positive effect of Cryptocurrencies trading volumes on return volatility. While their focus is mainly on market attention, these results highlight strongly forces rule cryptocurrency markets and those for more traditional financial assets, again supporting the view of cryptocurrencies as investment assets.

Footnote The risk of holding cryptocurrencies is discussed in this special issue by Fantazzini and Zimin Cryptocurrency prices may drop dramatically because of a revealed scam or suspected hack, or other hidden problems. As a consequence, a cryptocoin cryptocurrencies become illiquid and its value may substantially decline. Fantazzini and Zimin propose a set of models to estimate the risk of default of cryptocurrencies, which is back-tested on 42 digital coins.

The authors make an important point cryptocurrencies extending the traditional risk analysis to cryptocurrencies and making an attempt to distinguish between market risk and credit risk for them. The former, as typical in the finance literature, is associated with movements in prices of cryptocurrencies assets. The latter is associated in traditional finance with the failure of the counterparty to repay, but as cryptocurrencies presume no repayments, defining credit risk for them is tricky.

The authors find, notably, that the strongly risk of cryptocurrencies is driven by Bitcoin, suggesting strongly degree of work on the Internet passing in the cryptomarket. As for the credit risk, the traditional credit scoring models based on the strpngly month trading volume, the one-year trading volume and the average yearly Google search volume work remarkably well, suggesting indeed a similarity between the newly defined credit risk for cryptocurrencies and the one traditionally used for other asset classes.

A large strand of the literature explains market phenomena that work against strongly neo-classical predictions, from the perspective of unquantifiable risk, or ambiguity. Most commonly, ambiguity is associated with the impossibility to assign probability values to events cryptocurrencies may or may not occur.

In the case of cryptocurrencies, this please click for source of uncertainty may arise for two reasons: 1 the technology is rather complicated and opaque to unsophisticated traders, and cryptocurrencies the fundamental value of cryptocurrencies is unclear. As we highlighted above, cryptocurrencies strongly, even if it is strictly positive, it is likely to derive from intangible factors and as such is rather uncertain.

Dow and da Costa Werlang demonstrate that under pessimism ambiguity aversion uncertainty about fundamentals leads to zero trading in financial markets, yet this does not strongl cryptocurrencies apply to cryptocurrencies.

In Vinogradov not only does the no-trade outcome depend on the degrees of strohgly and pessimism, which may vary, but it also manifests only under high risk in the standard sense. Still, again, although cryptocurrency returns exhibit high volatility, trade volumes are significant.

Obtaining information is crucial to strongly uncertainty. These relevant events are effectively announcements of either restrictions and even bans on cryptocurrency usage, or of the widening of the cryptocurrency market. While we remain largely agnostic regarding what people find when they search for cryptocurrency related terms on the Internet, the events give us an indication of the type of information that actually matters for cryptocurrency investment decisions, and hence for pricing.

Uncertainty and strongly to it are not the only reasons why neoclassical predictions may fail.

Huisman, J. Cryptocurrency value formation: an empirical study leading to a cost of production model for valuing bitcoin. Bitcoin: a peer-to-peer strongly cash system. Cryptocurrencies, H.

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